## Saturday 30 March 2019

Here we meet the covariant divergence and prove a thing or two about it. (Carroll said it was 'easy'.) We also have the curved-space version of Stokes's theorem using the covariant derivative and finally the exterior derivative and commutator, where Carroll seems to have made a very peculiar typo. Sir George Gabriel Stokes, 1st Baronet was a very clever but he did not discover the theorem. He popularised it.

Here's the very impressive Stokes's theorem, which applies to the diagram
$$\int^{\ }_{\mathrm{\Sigma }}{{\mathrm{\nabla }}_{\mu }V^{\mu }\sqrt{\left|g\right|}}d^nx=\int^{\ }_{\mathrm{\partial }\mathrm{\Sigma }}{n_{\mu }V^{\mu }\sqrt{\left|\gamma \right|}}d^{n-1}x$$
At Carroll's (3.36) he says "if $\mathrm{\nabla }$ is the Christoffel symbol, ${\omega }_{\mu }$ is a one-form, and $X^{\mu }$ and $Y^{\mu }$ are vector fields, we can write
$${\left(\mathrm{d}\omega \right)}_{\mu \nu }=2{\partial }_{[\mu }{\omega }_{\nu ]}=2{\mathrm{\nabla }}_{[\mu }{\omega }_{\nu ]}$$The phrase "if $\mathrm{\nabla }$ is the Christoffel symbol" is bizarre and it is easy to prove the equation without it, assuming the Christoffel connection is torsion-free (${\mathrm{\Gamma }}^{\lambda }_{\mu \nu }={\mathrm{\Gamma }}^{\lambda }_{\nu \mu }$). I think our author meant "if the connection is torsion-free".

Read more at Commentary 3.2 Properties of covariant derivative.pdf (7 pages)