## Thursday, 23 July 2020

### Conformal Transformations

I want to understand the conformal diagrams in section 5.7 so I must read appendix G then H. Most of this is just checking Carroll's formulas for the conformal 'dynamical variables' - things like the connection coefficients and the Riemann tensor. It is eye bogglingly dense.

Conformal transformations all start when you multiply each component of the metric by a scalar $\omega$ which may depend on the coordinates. So we have a conformal metric $${\widetilde{g}}_{\mu\nu}=\omega^2g_{\mu\nu}$$Then we want find things like the Riemann tensor in the 'conformal frame'. It's quite easy to show that it is$${\widetilde{R}}_{\ \ \ \sigma\mu\nu}^\rho=R_{\ \ \ \sigma\mu\nu}^\rho+\nabla_\mu C_{\ \ \ \nu\sigma}^\rho-\nabla_\nu C_{\ \ \ \mu\sigma}^\rho+C_{\ \ \ \mu\lambda}^\rho C_{\ \ \ \nu\sigma}^\lambda-C_{\ \ \ \nu\lambda}^\rho C_{\ \ \ \mu\sigma}^\lambda$$where$$C_{\ \ \ \mu\nu}^\rho=\omega^{-1}\left(\delta_\nu^\rho\nabla_\mu\omega+\delta_\mu^\rho\nabla_\nu\omega-g^{\rho\lambda}g_{\mu\nu}\nabla_\lambda\omega\right)$$
Carrol then says "it is a matter of simply plugging in and grinding away to get"$${\widetilde{R}}_{\ \ \ \sigma\mu\nu}^\rho=R_{\ \ \ \sigma\mu\nu}^\rho-2\left(\delta_{[\mu}^\rho\delta_{\nu]}^\alpha\delta_\sigma^\beta-g_{\sigma[\mu}\delta_{\nu]}^\alpha g^{\rho\beta}\right)\omega^{-1}\nabla_\alpha\nabla_\beta\omega$$$$+2\left(2\delta_{[\mu}^\rho\delta_{\nu]}^\alpha\delta_\sigma^\beta-2g_{\sigma[\mu}\delta_{\nu]}^\alpha g^{\rho\beta}+g_{\sigma[\mu}\delta_{\nu]}^\rho g^{\alpha\beta}\right)\ \omega^{-2}\left(\nabla_\alpha\omega\right)\left(\nabla_\beta\omega\right)$$
I'm glad it wasn't complicated because getting to that took two dense pages part of which is shown below. He's also used the antisymmetrisation operator [], which is very clever but hard work. It also screws up my latex generator which does not like ]'s in indices.
See that in searchable form at Commentary App G Conformal Transformations.pdf (10 gruelling pages)

## Saturday, 18 July 2020

### Coordinates and basis vectors

I was still not really sure what is meant by the statement that partials form a coordinate basis. Then if they do, is their character (null, timelike or spacelike) related to the metric? At last I asked on Physics forums and PeterDonis had the final word. So now I do know what is meant by partials forming a coordinate basis and there is some relationship to the metric.

Carroll writes$$\frac{d}{d\lambda}=\frac{dx^\mu}{d\lambda}\partial_\mu$$"Thus the partials $\left\{\partial_\mu\right\}$ do indeed represent a good basis for the vector space of the directional derivatives, which we can therefore safely identify with the tangent space."

We have a parabola parameterized by $\lambda$ given by$$t=\frac{\lambda^2}{10}\ ,\ \ x=\lambda$$so$$\frac{dt}{d\lambda}=\frac{\lambda}{5}\ \ ,\ \ \ \frac{dx}{d\lambda}=1$$and the tangent vector $V=d/d\lambda$ has components $\left(dt / d\lambda , dx/ d \lambda\right)$ at $\left(t,x\right)$.

In plane polar coordinates $\left(r,\theta\right)$ the $\partial_\theta$ basis vector is along lines with parameters $\left(k_r,\lambda\right)$. So the $\theta$ basis vectors lie on concentric circles around the origin. Similarly $r$ basis vectors are radial.
All you need for plane polar coordinates is a line segment to measure $\theta$ from and one end to serve as the origin. The line is normally drawn horizontally. That is not essential.

See how it all hangs together: Commentary 2.3 Coordinates and basis vectors.pdf
And the thread on physics forums here.

## Tuesday, 14 July 2020

### The Metric Kruskal from From Stanford
I started to write this in May 2019 when I read section 2.5 and it has remained a work in progress until now. I have quite a collection of metrics: 3D Euclidean, Plane polar, Spherical polar, Surface of sphere (S2), Minkowski, Spherical Minkowski, Schwarzschild, Eddington-Finkelstein, Kruskal. I will add more as I find them.

We start with a bit of general information about a metric, then list each of the metrics. There's also something on null, spacelike and timelike coordinates; converting metrics to coordinate systems with an example on spherical metrics; four velocities and mysterious interchange of  $\mathrm{d}x$ and $dx$.

On this page the coordinate infinitesimals (which are really one forms) should be written with an unitalicized $\rm{d}$ for example $\mathrm{d}x$ not $dx$. That is very fiddly in Latex so I have not bothered except in the very first occurrence! (Most texts don't bother at all).

## The glory of the metric

The metric $g_{\mu\nu}$ is a symmetric (0,2) tensor and Carroll lists the following to appreciate its "glory". He is following Sachs and Wu (1977).
1. The metric supplies a notion of "past" and "future".
2. The metric allows the computation of path length and proper time.
3. The metric determines the "shortest distance" between two points, and therefore the motion of test particles.
4. The metric replaces the Newtonian gravitational field $\phi$.
5. The metric provides a notion of locally inertial frames and therefore a sense of "no rotation".
6. The metric determines causality, by defining the speed of light faster than which no signal can travel.
7. The metric replaces the traditional Euclidean three-dimensional dot product of Newtonian mechanics.
8. The (inverse) metric lowers (raises) indices: $U_\mu=g_{\mu\nu}U^\nu\ ,\ U^\mu=g^{\mu\nu}U_\nu$
I added the last one. It is related to the second last.

## Two and three dimensional geometry metrics

These are called Euclidean or Riemannian metrics.
3D Euclidean$${ds}^2=\mathrm{d}x^2+\mathrm{d}y^2+\mathrm{d}z^2$$$$g_{ij}=\left(\begin{matrix}1&0&0\\0&1&0\\0&0&1\\\end{matrix}\right)$$we explain why the equation and matrix formulations are equivalent.
Plane polar coordinates
Coordinates $(r,\theta)$ radial, angle to $x$ axis$$g_{ij}=\left(\begin{matrix}1&0\\0&r^2\\\end{matrix}\right)$$Spherical polar
Coordinates $(r,\theta,\phi)$ radial, polar, azimuthal (= longitude)$$g_{ij}=\left(\begin{matrix}1&0&0\\0&r^2&0\\0&0&r^2\sin^2{\theta}\\\end{matrix}\right)$$Surface of sphere (S2)
Coordinates $(\theta,\phi)$ polar, azimuthal$$g_{ij}=\left(\begin{matrix}1&0\\0&\sin^2{\theta}\\\end{matrix}\right)$$This metric is often written $${d\Omega}^2={d\theta}^2+\sin^2{\theta}{d\phi}^2$$

## Relativistic metrics

These are called Lorentzian or pseudo-Riemannian metrics.
We use a $-+++$ signature and the speed of light $c$ is conveniently set to 1.
Minkowski
Coordinates $(t,x,y,z)$ $$g_{\mu\nu}=\left(\begin{matrix}-1&0&0&0\\0&1&0&0\\0&0&1&0\\0&0&0&1\\\end{matrix}\right)$$Spherical Minkowski
Coordinates $(t,r,\theta,\phi)$ $r,\theta,\phi$ as in spherical$$g_{\mu\nu}=\left(\begin{matrix}-1&0&0&0\\0&1&0&0\\0&0&r^2&0\\0&0&0&r^2\sin^2{\theta}\\\end{matrix}\right)$$We could also write$${ds}^2=-d\tau^2=-{dt}^2+{dr}^2+r^2{d\Omega}^2$$Schwarzschild metric (spherical polar)
Coordinates are $(t,r,\theta,\phi)$ time, radial, polar, azimuthal$${ds}^2=-d\tau^2=-\left(1-\frac{2GM}{r}\right){dt}^2+\left(1-\frac{2GM}{r}\right)^{-1}{dr}^2+r^2\left({d\theta}^2+\sin^2{\theta}{d\phi}^2\right)$$We often replace $2GM$ (twice Newton's gravitational constant times the central mass) by $R_s$ the Schwarzschild radius which is the radius of event horizon and the last part by $r^2{d\Omega}^2$.
Eddington-Finkelstein metric
The Eddington-Finkelstein metric is for the same spacetime as Schwarzschild but with coordinates $\left(v,r,\theta,\phi\right)$ $${ds}^2=-\left(1-\frac{R_s}{r}\right)dv^2+dvdr+drdv+r^2{d\Omega}^2$$$$v=t+r+R_s\ln{\left|\frac{r}{R_s}-1\right|}$$This is the first metric we have listed which is not diagonal.
Kruskal predecessor
On the way to the Kruskal metric we get coordinates $\left(v^\prime,u^\prime,\theta,\phi\right)$ with metric equation$${ds}^2=-\frac{2{R_s}^3}{r}e^{-\frac{r}{R_s}}\left(dv^\prime du^\prime+du^\prime dv^\prime\right)+r^2{d\Omega}^2$$where $r$ is implicitly defined in terms of $u^\prime,v^\prime$ as$$u^\prime v^\prime=-\left(\frac{r}{R_s}-1\right)e^{r/R_s}$$Kruskal
Kruskal coordinates are $\left(T,R,\theta,\phi\right)$ where in terms of Schwarzschild $t,r$ $$T=\left(\frac{r}{R_s}-1\right)^{1/2}e^\frac{r}{2R_s}\sinh{\left(\frac{t}{2R_s}\right)}$$$$R=\left(\frac{r}{R_s}-1\right)^{1/2}e^\frac{r}{2R_s}\cosh{\left(\frac{t}{2R_s}\right)}$$and they give a metric equation$${ds}^2=\frac{4{R_s}^3}{r}e^{-\frac{r}{R_s}}\left(-dT^2+dR^2\right)+r^2{d\Omega}^2$$with $r$ implicitly defined from$$T^2-R^2=\left(1-\frac{r}{R_s}\right)e^\frac{r}{R_s}$$

Read all that and more on  at Commentary 2.5 The Metric.pdf (11 pages)

## Thursday, 9 July 2020

### Kruskal coordinates and the maximally extended Schwarzschild solution

Kruskal coordinates $\left(T,R,\theta,\phi\right)$ are called 'maximally extended' because they cover the whole spacetime except the true singularity at $r=0$. Indeed, they find some remarkable new regions of spacetime! The history of the discoveries spans 45 years from Einstein and Schwarzschild (1915) to Kruskal (1960).

The Kruskal coordinates are related to Schwarzschild coordinates $\left(t,r,\theta,\phi\right)$ by $$T=\left(\frac{r}{R_s}-1\right)^{1/2}e^\frac{r}{2R_s}\sinh{\left(\frac{t}{2R_s}\right)}$$
$$R=\left(\frac{r}{R_s}-1\right)^{1/2}e^\frac{r}{2R_s}\cosh{\left(\frac{t}{2R_s}\right)}$$and give a metric equation$${ds}^2=\frac{4{R_s}^3}{r}e^{-\frac{r}{R_s}}\left(-dT^2+dR^2\right)+r^2{d\Omega}^2$$with $r$ implicitly defined from$$T^2-R^2=\left(1-\frac{r}{R_s}\right)e^{r/R_s}$$From these we can draw a Kruskal diagram  showing lines of constant $t$ and $r$ and light cones which miraculously are always at 45° just like in flat spacetime.

The regions above the upper $r=0$ line and below the lower $r=0$ line are not part of spacetime. ($r<0$ and $t>+\infty$ or $t<-\infty$ in them). The rest of the diagram is divided into four regions.

I    Right quarter. Normal space time outside the event horizon.👍
II   Below the upper $r=0$ line and above the upper $r=R_s$ lines. Inside the event horizon.👎
III  Above the lower $r=0$ line and below the lower $r=R_s$ lines. The white hole.💣
IV  Left quarter. The unreachable mirror image of normal space time.👻

The red light cones, which are always at 45°, are informative. In region I you can always maintain a fixed $r$ and you can always move up towards and into region II. You can never get into regions III or IV. Once in region II it is impossible to maintain constant $r$ because lines of constant $r$ are always flatter than 45° so you inevitably arrive at $r=0$. Region IV is like region I and you can only get to region II from it. Carroll says region III is a the time reverse of II and can be thought of as a white hole. "There is a singularity in the past, out of which the universe appears to spring". Things can only come out of it. They can just get directly to II through the origin, more likely they will go into I or IV.

Regions II and III are allowed even though $t>+\infty$ in II and $t<-\infty$ in III.

Although region I and region IV are mutually unreachable, if an intrepid explorer went from region I into region II, they would be able to see some things that had happened in region IV. Likewise an explorer from region IV could have a brief look at region I before perishing.

Find out how to get to Kruskal and a few other things in Commentary 5.7 Kruskal coordinates.pdf (11 pages).