Vector ##U## (solid) and 1-form ##\widetilde{U}## (dashed) |

### The recipe

Figure 2.7. Several vectors, ##A,B,C,D,E##, and corresponding 1-forms ##\widetilde{A},\widetilde{B},\widetilde{C},\widetilde{D},\widetilde{E}##. The process of drawing ##\widetilde{U}## corresponding to a given vector ##U## is quite simple. 1) Orient the surfaces of ##\widetilde{U}## orthogonal to the vector ##U## . (Why? Because any vector ##V## that is perpendicular to ##U## must pierce no surfaces of ##\widetilde{U}## (##0=U\bullet V=U,V##) and must therefore lie in a surface of ##\widetilde{U}##.) 2) Space the surfaces of ##\widetilde{U}## so the number of surfaces pierced by some arbitrary vector ##Y## (e.g., ##Y=U##) is equal to ##Y\bullet U##.

Note that in the figure the surfaces of ##\widetilde{B}## are, indeed, orthogonal to ##B##; those of ##\widetilde{C}## are, indeed, orthogonal to ##C##, etc. If they do not look so, that is because the reader is attributing Euclidean geometry, not Lorentz geometry, to the spacetime diagram. He should recall, for example, that because ##C## is a null vector, it is orthogonal to itself (##C\bullet C=0##), so it must itself lie in a surface of the 1-form ##\widetilde{C}##. Confused readers may review spacetime diagrams in a more elementary text, e.g., Taylor and Wheeler (1966)."

Read it here, including punchline: 2.5 Differential forms.pdf. (6 pages)

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