## Thursday, 17 September 2020

### Curvature in two dimensions

Here we calculate formulas for curvature in two dimensions. Specifically we give coordinates, metrics, Christoffel symbols, Riemann tensors (only twice) and scalar curvature (or Ricci scalar) for ellipsoids, elliptic paraboloids and hyperbolic paraboloids.

 Images from Wikipedia: Ellipsoid , Paraboloid

We also find a general formula for the scalar curvature in two dimensions which only requires one component of the Riemann tensor. On the way we find the formulas to calculate all the other non zero Riemann components from the one. With coordinates $\left(\theta,\phi\right)$ which are naturally used for the ellipsoid, the formula for the scalar curvature is $$R=\frac{2}{g_{\phi\phi}}\left(\partial_\theta\Gamma_{\phi\phi}^\theta-\partial_\phi\Gamma_{\theta\phi}^\theta+\Gamma_{\theta\theta}^\theta\Gamma_{\phi\phi}^\theta+\Gamma_{\theta\phi}^\theta\Gamma_{\phi\phi}^\phi-\Gamma_{\phi\theta}^\theta\Gamma_{\theta\phi}^\theta-\Gamma_{\phi\phi}^\theta\Gamma_{\theta\phi}^\phi\right)$$This is very similar to the formula given at the very end of the Wikipedia article on Gaussian curvature $K$ which is$$K=-\frac{1}{E}\left(\frac{\partial}{\partial u}\Gamma_{12}^2-\frac{\partial}{\partial v}\Gamma_{11}^2+\Gamma_{12}^1\Gamma_{11}^2-\Gamma_{11}^1\Gamma_{12}^2+\Gamma_{12}^2\Gamma_{12}^2-\Gamma_{11}^2\Gamma_{22}^2\right)$$The article also reveals that the scalar curvature is twice the Gaussian curvature. The Wikipedia formula might be better written with all the one indices replaced by $u$ and all the 2 indices replaced by $v$. Then reverting to $\theta,\phi$ as indices, the thing in brackets in the first formula is $R_{\ \ \ \phi\theta\phi}^\theta$ and in the second is $R_{\ \ \ \theta\theta\phi}^\phi$. The relationship mentioned above between Riemann components is
\begin{align}
R_{\ \ \ \theta\theta\phi}^\theta&=\frac{g_{\theta\phi}}{g_{\phi\phi}}R_{\ \ \ \phi\theta\phi}^\theta&\phantom {10000}\nonumber\\
R_{\ \ \ \theta\phi\theta}^\theta&=-\frac{g_{\theta\phi}}{g_{\phi\phi}}R_{\ \ \ \phi\theta\phi}^\theta&\phantom {10000}\nonumber\\
R_{\ \ \ \phi\theta\phi}^\theta&=\partial_\theta\Gamma_{\phi\phi}^\theta-\partial_\phi\Gamma_{\theta\phi}^\theta+\Gamma_{\theta\theta}^\theta\Gamma_{\phi\phi}^\theta+\Gamma_{\theta\phi}^\theta\Gamma_{\phi\phi}^\phi-\Gamma_{\phi\theta}^\theta\Gamma_{\theta\phi}^\theta-\Gamma_{\phi\phi}^\theta\Gamma_{\theta\phi}^\phi&\phantom {10000}\nonumber\\
R_{\ \ \ \phi\phi\theta}^\theta&=-R_{\ \ \ \phi\theta\phi}^\theta&\phantom {10000}\nonumber\\
R_{\ \ \ \theta\theta\phi}^\phi&=-\frac{g_{\theta\theta}}{g_{\phi\phi}}R_{\ \ \ \phi\theta\phi}^\theta&\phantom {10000}\nonumber\\
R_{\ \ \ \theta\phi\theta}^\phi&=\frac{g_{\theta\theta}}{g_{\phi\phi}}R_{\ \ \ \phi\theta\phi}^\theta&\phantom {10000}\nonumber\\
R_{\ \ \ \phi\theta\phi}^\phi&=-\frac{g_{\theta\phi}}{g_{\phi\phi}}R_{\ \ \ \phi\theta\phi}^\theta&\phantom {10000}\nonumber\\
R_{\ \ \ \phi\phi\theta}^\phi&=\frac{g_{\theta\phi}}{g_{\phi\phi}}R_{\ \ \ \phi\theta\phi}^\theta&\phantom {10000}\nonumber
\end{align}So now it is easy to work out that the mysterious $E$ in the Wikipedia formula should be $g_{\theta\theta}$ which is the same as $g_{11}$.

For the record the scalar curvatures for the ellipsoids, elliptic paraboloids and hyperbolic paraboloids are respectively$$R_{El}=\frac{2b^2}{\left(a^2\cos^2{\theta}+b^2\sin^2{\theta}\right)^2}$$$$R_{Ep}=\frac{2a^2}{\left(1+a^2r^2\right)^2}$$$$R_{Hp}=\frac{-8}{\left|g\right|^2a^2b^2}$$These are a bit vague until you know what the coordinate systems are but you can see what the sign of the curvature is which is what I was interested in.

## Why did I do all this?

This was quite a project. It was sparked off by the following:
On Physics Forums Ibix said:
I don't know where you [JoeyJoystick] are getting numbers for the mass of the universe from - our current understanding is that it's infinite in size and mass.
I said:
Ibix said:
I would think Carroll covers it - chapter 8 of his lecture notes certainly does. The flat and negative curvature FLRW metrics are infinite in extent and have finite density matter everywhere. Modern cosmological models are a bit more complicated, but retain those features.

Chapter 8 in the book is on Cosmology and about 50 pages long. Part 8 of the lecture notes is on Cosmology and contain 15 pages. I think those are the places to look, but after a quick look I did not find anything specifically about the size of the Universe.

If the universe has flat or negative curvature locally and then we presume that applies everywhere, that implies it is infinite in extent. Presumably shortly after the big bang the universe was finite in extent, so at some time it must have changed from finite to infinite! Maybe that's inflation?

So I decided to test the flatness idea in two dimensions....
Summary in Commentary 8 Curvatures 2D.pdf (6 pages), mostly pictures.
Full details in
Commentary 8 Curvatures 2D calculations.docx
or Commentary 8 Curvatures 2D calculations.pdf (24 pages)