Sean Carroll, my guide and nemesis |

After equation 3.161 for the geodesic in terms of 4 momentum ##p^\lambda\nabla_\lambda p^\mu=0## Carroll says that by metric compatibility we are free to lower the index ## \mu##. Metric compatibility means that ##\nabla_\rho g_{\mu\nu}=\nabla_\rho g^{\mu\nu}=0## so I tried to show that, given that, ##\nabla_\lambda p^\mu=\nabla_\lambda p_\mu##. Here was my first attempt:

Lower the index with the metric, use the Leibnitz rule, use metric compatibility$$

\nabla_\lambda p^\mu=\nabla_\lambda g^{\mu\nu}p_\nu=p_\nu\nabla_\lambda g^{\mu\nu}+g^{\mu\nu}\nabla_\lambda p_\nu=0+\nabla_\lambda p^\mu

$$Then I tried painfully expanding ##\nabla_\lambda g^{\mu\nu}p_\nu## and got the same result. So then I asked on Physics Forums: Why does metric compatibility imply ##\nabla_\lambda p^\mu=\nabla_\lambda p_\mu##? I got my wrist slapped by martinbn who pointed out that ##\nabla_\lambda p^\mu=\nabla_\lambda p_\mu## made no sense because there are different types of tensors on each side of the equation. (The ## \mu## is up on one side and down on the other).

**I was embarrassed😡.**

What Carroll is really saying is that metric compatibility means that$$

\nabla_\lambda p^\mu=0\Rightarrow\nabla_\lambda p_\mu=0

$$which is quite different and easy to show:$$

\nabla_\lambda p^\mu=0

$$$$

\Rightarrow g^{\mu\nu}\nabla_\lambda p_\nu=0

$$$$

\Rightarrow g_{\rho\mu}g^{\mu\nu}\nabla_\lambda p_\nu=0

$$$$

\Rightarrow\delta_\rho^\nu\nabla_\lambda p_\nu=0

$$$$

\Rightarrow\nabla_\lambda p_\rho=0

$$I posted something very like those steps and there was silence which usually means they are correct. The first step uses, ##\nabla_\lambda p^\mu=g^{\mu\nu}\nabla_\lambda p_\nu##, which can be done in several ways

1) ##\nabla_\lambda p^\mu## is a tensor so you can lower (or raise) an index with the metric as usual.

2) ##\nabla_\lambda p^\mu=\nabla_\lambda\left(g^{\mu\nu}p_\nu\right)=p_\nu\nabla_\lambda g^{\mu\nu}+g^{\mu\nu}\nabla_\lambda p_\nu=g^{\mu\nu}\nabla_\lambda p_\nu## as in (1) use the Leibnitz rue and metric compatibility

3) ##\nabla_\lambda p^\mu=\nabla_\lambda\left(g^{\mu\nu}p_\nu\right)=g^{\mu\nu}\nabla_\lambda p_\nu## using Carroll's third rule for covariant derivatives: That they commutes with contractions.

The Leibnitz rule was the second rule of covariant derivatives and I discussed all four in Commentary 3.2 Christoffel Symbol. The third caused angst and another question on PF. I now think that the third rule is just saying that because the covariant derivative is a tensor you can raise and lower indexes on it. 3 and 1 above are really the same. I have suitably amended Commentary 3.2 Christoffel Symbol.

Sometimes I hate Carroll!

There was also another post on the thread ahead of the first two which referred to a similar question on Stack Exchange. MathematicalPhysicist was asked to show that $$

U^\alpha\nabla_\alpha V^\beta=W^\beta\Rightarrow U^\alpha\nabla_\alpha W_\beta=W_\beta

$$The proof for this is very similar to the above:$$

U^\alpha\nabla_\alpha V^\beta=W^\beta

$$$$

\Rightarrow U^\alpha g^{\beta\gamma}\nabla_\alpha V_\gamma=g^{\beta\gamma}W_\gamma

$$$$

\Rightarrow U^\alpha g_{\mu\beta}g^{\beta\gamma}\nabla_\alpha V_\gamma=g_{\mu\beta}g^{\beta\gamma}W_\gamma

$$$$

\Rightarrow U^\alpha\delta_\mu^\gamma\nabla_\alpha V_\gamma=\delta_\mu^\gamma W_\gamma

$$$$

\Rightarrow U^\alpha\nabla_\alpha V_\mu=W_\mu

$$Once again there are three ways to do the first step. Metric compatibility is not essential.

See Commentary 3.8 Symmetries and Killing vectors.pdf first two pages. Then I run into another problem with Killing.

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